The Experience of Chinese in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Anti-Chinese Attitudes and Violence

Books and Articles

  • Ahmad, Diana L.  The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth Century American West. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 2007.
  • American Federation of Labor.  Some Reasons for the Exclusion of Chinese: Meat vs Rice; American Manhood Against Asiatic Coolieism. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1902.
  • Asher, Brad.  “Chinese Laborers Meet Resistance in the Washington Territory.”
  • Bagley, Clarence B.  History of Seattle, From the Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Chicago, S. J. Clarke, 1916 Volume II, Chapter XXV, The Anti-Chinese Agitation and Riots, pp. 455-478.
  • California State Senate.  Chinese immigration: The Social, Moral and Political Effect of Chinese Immigration. Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1877.
  • Carter, Don. “Recession Fueled the Anti-Chinese Riots,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 4 February 1986.
  • Chan, Sucheng (ed.)  Entry Denied: Exclusion and the Chinese Community in America, 1882 – 1943. 1991.
  • Chang, Iris.  The Chinese in America: A Narrative History. New York: Viking, 2003.
  • Chin, Art.  Golden Tassels: A history of the Chinese in Washington. 1977.
  • Chin, Doug.  Seattle’s International District: The Making of a Pan-Asian American Community. Seattle: International Examiner Press, 2009.
  • Chin, Doug and Art Chin.  Up Hill: The Settlement and Diffusion of the Chinese in Seattle. Seattle: Shorey Book Store, 1973.
  • Cowan, Robert Ernest and Boutwell Dunlap.  Bibliography of the Chinese Question in the United States. San Francisco: A. M. Robertson, 1909.
  • Daniels, Roger.  Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States Since 1850. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.
  • Dirlik, Arlif (editor).  Chinese on the American Frontier. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.
  • Dunn, Ashley. “Seattle’s Chinese Expulsion,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 4 February 1986.
  • Echtle, Edward.  Early Chinese Community at Olympia, Washington. Undergraduate Thesis, The Evergreen State College, 1997.
  • Feichter, Nancy Koehler.  The Chinese in the Inland Empire During the Nineteenth Century. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, State College of Washington (Washington State University), 1959.
  • Gold, Martin B, Forbidden Citizens – Chinese Exclusion and the U.S. Congress: A Legislative History,, 2012.
  • Guillen, Tomas. “Education March Recalls Chinese Expulsion of 1886.”  The Seattle Times, 9 February 1986.
  • Gyory, Andrew.  Closing the Gate: Race, Politics and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
  • Halsreth, James A. and Bruce A Glasrud. “Anti-Chinese Movements in Washington, 1885 – 1886: A Reconsideration” in Halsreth and Glasrud (eds.) Northwest Mosaic, Pruett Publishing Co., 1977.
  • Hildebrand, Lorraine.  Straw Hats, Sandals, and Steel: The Chinese in Washington State. Ethnic history series, 2. Tacoma: Washington State American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, 1977.
  • Hsu, Madeline Yuan-yin.  Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migrations between the United States and South China 1882-1943. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.
  • Hunt, Herbert.  Tacoma, Its History and Its Builders; a Half Century of Activity. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Pub. Co, 1916; Chapter 32: The Chinese Menace.
  • Karlin, Jules Alexander. “The Anti-Chinese Outbreaks in Seattle, 1885-1886.”  Pacific Northwest Quarterly, April, 1948. pp. 103-130.
  • Kinnear, George.  Anti-Chinese Riots in Seattle, Wn., February 8th, 1886.Seattle: Self-published, 1911.
  • Lee, Erika and Judy Yung.  Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America. Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • McClain, Charles J.  In Search of Equality: The Chinese Struggle Against Discrimination in Nineteenth-Century America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
  • Morgan, Murray.  Puget’s Sound: A Narrative of Early Tacoma and the Southern Sound. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.
  • Pfaelzer, Jean.  Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.
  • Roth, Lottie Roeder.  History of Whatcom County. Chicago: Pioneer Historical Pub. Co, 1926.
  • Saxton, Alexander.  The Indispensable Enemy: Labor and Anti-Chinese Movement in California. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
  • Schwantes, Carlos A.  Radical Heritage: Labor, Socialism and Reform in Washington and British Columbia, 1885-1917. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979.
  • Taylor, Quintard.  The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle’s Central District, from 1870 Through the Civil Rights Era. The Emil and Kathleen Sick lecture-book series in western history and biography. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994; Chapter 4: Blacks and Asians in a White City, 106-134.
  • Washington (Territory), and Watson C. Squire.  Report of the Governor of Washington Territory to the Secretary of the Interior, 1886. Washington: G.P.O., 1886.
  • Wilcox, W.P. “Anti-Chinese Riots in Washington,” Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol 20 No 3 (20 July 1929), 204-12.
  • Wong, K. Scott and Sucheng Chan (editors). Claiming America: Constructing Chinese American Identities during the Exclusion Era. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.
  • Wu, Cheng-Tzu. “Chink!” A Documentary History of Anti-Chinese Prejudice in America. New York: World Publishing, 1972.
  • Wynne, Robert Edward.  Reaction to the Chinese in the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, 1850-1910. New York: Arno Press, 1978.

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